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Recommendations for standardisation and data enrichment


Recommendations for documenting data


Recommendations for improving the 'openness level'


File formats and their achievable openness level

* Strictly according to the five-star model, this format would have to be rated with three stars, since the data may well be designed to be machine readable. However, we only give one star because this format was not originally intended to represent machine-readable but human-readable content. Representing machine-readable content in this format does not meet best practice and is therefore not recommended by the authors.

Source: based on Publications Office, Data Quality Guidelines, 2022,